Vier voorbeelden van het (zelf)plagiaat van topeconoom Nijkamp

LEIDERDORP-IKEA-BILLY

Nijkamp is een van de meest publicerende economen van Nederland. Foto ANP / Lex van Lieshout

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Wetenschap

2011 was zijn topjaar: hij publiceerde 1 artikel per 3 dagen. En sinds het begin van het nieuwe jaar heeft de 67-jarige topeconoom Peter Nijkamp alweer 6 publicaties op zijn naam staan. Een steekproef van NRC Handelsblad laat zien dat Nijkamp in meerdere publicaties zelfplagiaat pleegde. Ook bevatten artikelen in drie proefschriften waarvan hij co-auteur is, tekstplagiaat van andere wetenschappers. Zie hier een paar voorbeelden.

Update 18 januari: over het plagiaat en zelfplagiaat van Peter Nijkamp is veel onduidelijkheid ontstaan. Dat komt mede omdat de hieronder genoemde voorbeelden op deze site onvolledig waren en enkele fouten bevatten. Het complete, juiste onderzoek vindt u hier:

Nijkamp schreef in totaal 1.036 artikelen en boeken. Over het proefschrift van zijn promovendus Karima Kourtit kwam een anonieme tip over plagiaat binnen. Daarop werd haar promotie opgeschort en onderzocht een integriteitscommissie de zaak. Conclusie: zelfplagiaat en enkele citaten zonder bronvermelding. Niet alleen de schrijver van het proefschrift trof blaam, maar ook haar begeleider. Een samenvatting van het rapport staat sinds kort online.

Kourtit mocht haar proefschrift aanpassen en toch promoveren. De VU zag “geen aanleiding” het werk van Nijkamp verder door te lichten op hergebruik van eigen teksten. Wetenschapsredacteur Frank van Kolfschooten deed daarom zelf een aantal steekproeven in het werk van Nijkamp, en vond meerdere onregelmatigheden. Zie hieronder vier voorbeelden.

Maar eerst: wat is zelfplagiaat?

Wetenschappers dienen bronnen die zij gebruiken zorgvuldig aan te geven, ook als het werk van henzelf betreft. De vindplaats van de oorspronkelijke tekst en naam van de auteur moet erbij worden vermeld en letterlijk overgenomen tekst moet tussen aanhalingstekens. Als een auteur eigen teksten gebruikt voor een nieuwe publicatie, maar dit er niet bij vermeldt, is dat zelfplagiaat.

Waarom zou een auteur dat doen?

Prestaties in de wetenschap worden onder meer afgemeten aan het aantal citaten, dus wat dat betreft zou je zeggen dat het citeren van eigen werk juist voordelig is. Maar door stukken tekst te kopiëren, kan eigen werk worden hergebruikt - en dat scheelt tijd. En dat levert weer méér publicaties op.

Voorbeeld 1

Tekst: International Trade Negotiations and the Trans-Border Movement of People: A Review of the Literature van Anna Strutt, Jacques Poot en Jason Dubbeldam uit 2008 (pdf).

Kourtit & Nijkamp: In addition, greater labour mobility helps to facilitate trade, and increases the cross-border demand for domestic output (see Strutt et al., 2008).

Strutt et al.: In addition, greater labour mobility helps to facilitate trade and increases the cross-border demand for domestic output.

Kourtit & Nijkamp: They foster international trade through their demand for home country outputs, and through their ability to facilitate trade between the host and home countries (e.g., cost differences, product differentiation, and migrants’ tastes) (see Strutt et al., 2008). Migrant networks are important in this context.

Strutt et al.: Immigrants foster international trade through their demand for home country outputs and through their ability to facilitate trade between the host and home countries. Migrant networks are important in this context.

Kourtit & Nijkamp: Migrants often have a social or business network in their home country which may be used in the host country (e.g., to reduce transaction costs, which may increase both exports and imports) (see Strutt et al., 2008).

Strutt et al.: Migrants often have a social or business network in their home country which may be used in the host country.

Voorbeeld 2

Tekst: The costs and benefits of European immigration van Rainer Münz, Thomas Straubhaar, Florin Vadean en Nadia Vadean uit 2006 (pdf).

Kourtit & Nijkamp: Most countries could improve their competitiveness relative to the migrant-sending countries through the devaluation effect on the exchange rate and through the additional spending capacity generated in the migrant-sending countries. (Münz et al., 2006).

Münz et al.: The EU countries could improve their competitiveness relative to the migrant sending countries through the devaluation effect on the exchange rate and through the additional spending capacity generated in the migrant sending countries.

Voorbeeld 3

Tekst: Assessing the Fiscal Costs and Benefits of A8 Migration to the UK van Christian Dustmann, Tommaso Frattini, Caroline Halls uit 2010 (pdf).

Kourtit & Nijkamp: This is because they have a higher labour force participation rate, pay proportionately more in indirect taxes and social security contributions, and make much less use of benefits and public services.

Dustman et al.: : This is because they have a higher labour force participation rate, pay proportionately more in indirect taxes and make much less use of benefits and public services.

Kourtit & Nijkamp, p. 191: Immigration could remedy shortages of labour and skills that are unrelated to demographic processes. However, immigration is not a solution for tackling the consequences of demographic ageing in Europe. The level of net migration required to keep the old-age dependency ratio constant would entail increases of inflows well beyond socially desirable and politically sustainable levels.

Nijkamp, Migration Impact Assessment: A Review of Evidence-Based Findings(2012): Immigration could also be a remedy to shortages of labour and skills that are unrelated to demographic processes. However, immigration is not a solution for tackling the consequences of demographic ageing in Europe. The level of net migration required to keep the old-age dependency ratio constant would entail increases of inflows well beyond socially desirable and politically sustainable levels.

In dit artikel van Nijkamp staan ook de volgende zinnen:

In addition, greater labour mobility helps to facilitate trade and increases the cross-border demand for domestic output. The nurturing of cultural diversity may further enhance trade. However, social cohesion and the accumulation of social capital are not natural outcomes in increasingly diverse societies, but require resources to be allocated to the promotion of desirable social outcomes. Thus, the social evaluation of greater cross-border mobility resulting from greater international economic integration must go hand in hand with the economic assessment.

Deze blijken gekopieerd uit een tekst van Strutt uit 2008, terwijl zijn naam alleen aan het begin van de alinea genoemd wordt:

In addition, greater labour mobility helps to facilitate trade and increases the cross-border demand for domestic output. The nurturing of cultural diversity may further enhance trade. However, social cohesion and the accumulation of social capital are not natural outcomes in increasingly diverse societies, but require resources to be allocated to the promotion of desirable social outcomes. Thus, the social evaluation of greater cross-border mobility resulting from greater international economic integration must go hand in hand with the economic assessment.

Voorbeeld 4

Kourtit & Nijkamp: The literature shows that the impact of migration on welfare in the receiving and sending countries depends heavily on the flexibility of labour markets. The labour market impact of migration has been examined in a large number of econometric studies in Europe. These studies rely on a cross-section of either regions or branches, and use variations in the migrant density in order to identify the impact of migration on wages and employment. The results of these studies show that migration is neutral for wages and employment of natives in the receiving countries (see for details Longhi et al., 2005, 2007).
On the other hand, as many studies show, migration provides many benefits and contributes to economic growth and the creation of new jobs. Economic growth and the creation of new jobs are strongly associated with the willingness to take up chances across regions and the supply of jobs regulates the flow of people seeking work. Regional labour mobility in the EU-15 is low –only about 1 out of 200 workers changes residence every year compared with 5 in the United States in spite of large income differentials within and across countries (Boeri and Brücker, 2005). Hence, immigration from outside the European Union has become a potentially very crucial role for the creation of a higher level of labour mobility in Europe. If there is labour mobility, it is largely due to international migration (Zimmermann, 2005). Europe is a place where migration is especially useful from an economic perspective. In the context of an ageing population and a need for certain skills, migrants make an important economic contribution. The recent study by Boeri and Brücker (2005) shows that international migration can significantly increase income per capita in Europe. They have estimated that at the given wage and productivity gap between Western and Eastern Europe, migration of 3% of the Eastern population to the West could increase total EU GDP by up to 0.5%. The contributions of migrants to the economic growth as well as to the creation of new jobs will be further examined in the next section.

Tüzin Baycan-Levent & Nijkamp:The literature shows that the impact of migration on welfare in the receiving and sending countries depends heavily on the flexibility of labour markets. The labour market impact of migration has been examined in a large number of econometric studies in Europe. These studies rely on a cross-section of either regions or branches, and use variations in the migrant density in order to identify the impact of migration on wages and employment. The results of these studies show that migration is neutral for wages and employment of natives in the receiving countries (see for details Longhi et al., 2005, 2007).
On the other hand, as many studies show, migration provides many benefits and contributes to economic growth and the creation of new jobs. Economic growth and the creation of new jobs are strongly associated with the willingness to take up chances across regions and the supply of jobs regulates the flow of people seeking work. Regional labour mobility in the EU-15 is low –only about 1 out of 200 workers changes residence every year compared with 5 in the United States in spite of large income differentials within and across countries (Boeri and Brücker, 2005). Hence, immigration from outside the European Union has become a potentially very crucial role for the creation of a higher level of labour mobility in Europe. If there is labour mobility, it is largely due to international migration (Zimmermann, 2005). Europe is a place where migration is especially useful from an economic perspective. In the context of an ageing population and a need for certain skills, migrants make an important economic contribution. The recent study by Boeri and Brücker (2005) shows that international migration can significantly increase income per capita in Europe. They have estimated that at the given wage and productivity gap between Western and Eastern Europe, migration of 3% of the Eastern population to the West could increase total EU GDP by up to 0.5%. The contributions of migrants to the economic growth as well as to the creation of new jobs will be further examined in the next section.

Lees meer over:
econoom
Karima Kourtit
Peter Nijkamp
plagiaat
Vrije Universiteit
zelfplagiaat

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